By W. K. Lelbach (auth.), Priv. Doz. Dr. med. Helmut Karl Seitz, Professor Dr. med. Burkhard Kommerell (eds.)
Alcohol abuse ranks one of the most typical and likewise the main critical environmental risks to human overall healthiness. Its value is heightened by way of the opportunity of prevention via removing of the behavior, besides the fact that, not often exerted. The occurrence of deleterious results on human well-being has relentlessly risen long ago years for various components. They contain migration of populations and, really, elevated urbanization. therefore, in a few elements of the area, inhabitants teams formerly spared became concerned, that's additionally re flected within the expanding variety of breweries and distilleries within the constructing international locations. Social, non secular, and gender-related limitations to alcohol intake are loosening, and the monetary development of a few segments of populations now allow them to shop for alcoholic drinks. hence the best percent upward push within the usa has lately been in black ladies. children and teenagers drink extra alcoholic drinks than ever, and starting to be alcohol abuse by means of pregnant ladies has permit to a rise of the prevalence of the fetal alcohol syndrome. whereas the social and behavioral, together with psychiatric, results of alcoholism are excellent, the gastrointestinal and, fairly, hepatic manifestations are the main frequent somatic results, and protracted hepatic sickness in alcoholics looks to reason the best price to society. certainly, mortality from liver cirrhosis is taken into account a competent index of alcohol intake in a country.
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Extra resources for Alcohol Related Diseases in Gastroenterology
1983a). Such lesions were commonly seen in alcoholic patients with low hepatic A levels (Leo et al. 1983a). Thus vitamin A depletion may contribute to the liver lesions of the alcoholic. Vitamin A supplementation is sometimes used to correct the problems of night blindness and sexual dysfunction of the alcoholic. Such therapy might also be useful with regard to the liver pathology. The therapeutic usage of vitamin A, however, is complicated by the fact that excessive amounts of vitamin A are known to be hepatotoxic and that alcohol consumption enhances the suspectibility to this effect (Leo et al.
1982). On the other hand, the role of increased collagen synthesis is suggested by increased activity of hepatic peptidylproline hydroxylase in rats and primates and increased incorporation of proline C14 into hepatic collagen in rat liver slices (Feinman and Lieber 1972). A possible mechanism whereby alcohol consumption may be linked to collagen formation is the increase in tissue lactate secondary to alcohol metabolism, discussed before (Fig. 1). Elevated concentrations of lactate have been associated with increased peptidylproline hydroxylase activity both in vitro (Green and Goldberg 1964) and in vivo (Lindyet al.
Indeed, it has now been acknowledged that the ouabain effect is nonspecific and does not imply involvement of ATPase (Yuki and Thurman 1980). Among other mechanisms that enhance metabolic activity, one should mention the increase in the release of epinephrine from the adrenal glands after ethanol administration, both in animals and in man (Anton 1952; Klingman and Goodall 1957; Perman 1958, 1960, 1961). This may indirectly accelerate ethanol metabolism. If, following chronic ethanol consumption, changes affecting the ADH pathway (such as ATPase activity) were exclusively responsible for the acceleration of ethanol metabolism, the latter should be fully abolished by pyrazole treatment.
Alcohol Related Diseases in Gastroenterology by W. K. Lelbach (auth.), Priv. Doz. Dr. med. Helmut Karl Seitz, Professor Dr. med. Burkhard Kommerell (eds.)