Download e-book for iPad: Alternative Fuels Guidebook by Bechtold R.L.

By Bechtold R.L.

ISBN-10: 0768000521

ISBN-13: 9780768000528

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Provide additional detail [29]. 2 Ultrafiltration Ultrafiltration membranes are not tested by bubble point. The pores are too small, so other means are used. Direct microscopic observation of the surface is difficult and unreliable. Because of their small size, the pores usually close when samples are dried for the electron microscope. 28) also describes the force pulling a pore shut as it dries, and as r becomes very small, the force is enormous. Furthermore, its effect is greatest on the smallest pores.

In its simplest form, a polymer is dissolved at about 20% solids in a water miscible solvent. The polymer solution is cast on a plate to form a thin film, which is then quenched in water. In normal practice, the skin forms on top, and immediately below it, the polymer forms a much more open porous support layer. Almost all commercial membranes are cast on fabric (sometimes called "casting paper"), a nonwoven polyester or polyolefin material. The substrate must also bond well to the fabric, which becomes a permanent part of the membrane structure.

Membrane producers and purveyors of cleaning agents devote considerable effort to finding safe, effective and economical means of returning the membranes to full productivity. Frequently, cleaning agents slowly damage membranes, making them more susceptible to future fouling. While there are totally benign cleaning agents for some types of fouling, the more common foulants such as those involving proteins require aggressive cleaning agents to keep the cleaning cycle short. It is said that the cleaning requirements for membranes are the major determinant of membrane life [36].

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Alternative Fuels Guidebook by Bechtold R.L.


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